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Physical Symptoms of Panic and Anxiety

Common Symptoms and Co-Occurring Conditions

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Updated April 16, 2014

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com's Medical Review Board.

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There are many physical symptoms of panic and anxiety.

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People diagnosed with an anxiety disorder are often faced with many uncomfortable physical symptoms. Those with panic disorder and/or agoraphobia are usually familiar with the feelings of various disturbing physical sensations. These somatic issues are often related to their experience of panic attacks, the hallmark symptom of panic disorder.

Panic attacks are characterized by many challenging physical symptoms, such as sweating, accelerated heart rate, shaking, and trembling. Given the severity of these physical symptoms, it is not surprising that many people with panic disorder seek emergency medical care. Due to the complexity of the condition, wide range of symptoms, and its similarities to other illnesses, panic disorder is often misdiagnosed in emergency rooms.

The following is a summary of common physical symptoms and co-occurring conditions associated with panic disorder and anxiety:

Chest Pain

Chest pain is one of the most frightening physical symptoms of panic attacks. This is also the symptom that most often sends panic disorder sufferers to the emergency room. When chest pain occurs during a panic attack, it is not uncommon for the person to believe that they are experiencing a medical emergency, such as a heart attack.

Fortunately, panic attacks are typically not life-threatening. However, only a doctor or other medical professional is qualified to make a proper diagnosis and determine if a person’s chest pain is simply a symptom of a panic attack or is actually caused by a separate medical condition.

Shortness of Breath

Many people report that they find it difficult to breathe during a panic attack. Some people describe it as a suffocating or smothering feeling. Others report that it feels more like a choking sensation. Regardless of how it is described, shortness of breath can be a frightening experience.

Shortness of breath can lead to a fear of fainting or even possibly dying. Being so afraid during a panic attack often only leads to increased feelings of panic and anxiety. Even though shortness of breath can be scary and upsetting, it can often easily be managed through the help of coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises.

Headaches and Migraines

People with panic disorder are more prone to experiencing frequent headaches. Additionally, those diagnosed with panic disorder have also been found to suffer from the more severe types of headaches, known as migraines. Many people with panic disorder have reported that headaches and migraines often develop right after a panic attack.

Treatment options for panic disorder and co-occurring headaches and migraines are available. Some medications used to treat panic disorder have been found to be a safe and effective way to also treat co-occurring headaches. However, some medications for panic disorder may actually be contributing to headaches. A doctor or other medical professional will be able to create a treatment plan to help you manage both conditions.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a digestive disorder that is estimated to affect approximately 20% of US adults. The symptoms of IBS include bloating, frequent stomachaches, diarrhea, cramping, and constipation. Studies have found that IBS is more prevalent among people with anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder.

Both IBS and panic attacks involve a great deal of anticipatory anxiety, feelings of embarrassment, and avoidance behaviors. IBS and panic disorder have both been found to respond favorably to medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of these two treatment options.

Muscle Pain and Tension

Experiencing frequent feelings of fear, worry, and anxiety can impact the body by contributing to muscle pain and tightness. Muscle tension is a common problem for people with panic disorder. Typically, muscles become tense during a panic attack and can cause feelings of stiffness throughout the body, long after the attack has subsided.

Muscle pain and discomfort can often be managed through relaxation techniques. Common activities that can help calm and relax the body include breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, and visualization. There are many self-help books that provide examples and instructions on these techniques. Yoga is an activity that includes many aspects of relaxation with the additional benefits of exercise for panic disorder. Yoga classes can be found at local studios, gyms, and community centers.

Sources:

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Belleville, G. Folds-Busque, G., & Marchand, A. (2010). Characteristics of panic disorder patients consulting an emergency department with noncardiac Chest Pain. Primary Psychiatry, 17(3), 35-42.

Bourne, E. J. (2011). The anxiety and phobia workbook, (5th ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.

Gros, D. F., Antony, M. M., McCabe, R. E., Lydiard, R. B. (2011). A preliminary investigation of the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder on gastrointestinal distress in patients with comorbid panic disorder and irritable bowel syndrome. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 1027–1033.

Huffman, J.C., Pollack, M. H., & Stern, T. A. (2002). Panic disorder and chest pain: Mechanisms, morbidity, and management. Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 4(2), 54-62.

Sugaya, N., Kaiya, H. Kumano, H., & Nomura, S. (2008). Relationship between subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome and severity of symptoms associated with panic disorder. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 43, 675-681.

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